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4.

 

4.4.

. : - (Dow Jones Industrial Average) (Standard & Poors 500 Stock Price Index); (Financial Times Stock Indices, footsie); (Nikkei 225 Index); (TSE 300 Composite Index).

, , , . . 1882 . , . , - , ( , 80- . XIX . - 250 . , 30 100 ).

-, , 3 1884 . Afternoon News Letter; (9 2 ). 1886 . , -, 12 , American Cotton Oil, American Sugar, American Tobacco, Chicago Gas, Distilling and Cattle Feeding, General Electric, Laclede Gas, National Lead, North American, Tennessee Coal & Iron, US Leather (preferred), US Rubber. C 1928 . - 30 . , General Electric . 1. , , , , Boeing, Coca-Cola, General Motors, DuPont, IBM, , .

    1 ; .: [ ... 1994. . 281294].

, . , 4 -, 30 , 20 , 15 65 ( ).

, , - .

S&P 500 500 , 80% - ( 400 , 20 , 40 , 40 ).

, . -30, 1935 . (FT-Actuaries Index), 700 ( 80% ); -100 (Financial Times-Stock Exchange 100-Share Index), 1983 . 100 .

: , . . . , ( .: [, . 3083121).

, , , . , . .

XX . Moodys, Dan & Bradstreet, Inc., 1909 . Standard & Poors ( McGraw-Hill, Inc.). Fitch Investors Service, Inc.. , Daff and Phelps. . , 1973 .

. (Bond Ratings) , , . , - , . . , . 100 , - ; : Standard and Poors, Moodys Fitch Investors Service (. 4.3).

, , , , . , . . . , , (high-yield bonds) (junk bonds).

, . , .

 

 

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